The statistical analyses were performed using the statistical analysis programme SPSS v. No significant gender differences emerged when comparing the responses per item. Load distribution of the different items on the factors identified following exploratory factor analysis.
The process of translating and culturally adapting the AAOS-FAMsp ensures the conceptual equivalence of terms used between the original questionnaire and the final version of the AAOS-FAMsp, facilitating its introduction and use among native speakers of the second most widely spoken language in the world. In addition, an analysis of the psychometric properties of the questionnaire, including the criterion validity, construct validity, internal consistency and reliability of the measurement was performed, and the authors found optimal psychometric properties as well as high internal consistency and reliability with a strong correlation with FFIsp.
These results indicate that it can be used for assessment and monitoring among Spanish speakers to facilitate obtaining clinical results of high quality for the evaluation of the foot-ankle joint. Therefore, the aim of this study was achieved.
The process of adapting the Spanish AAOS-FAM was conducted following suggestions in the literature [ 11 , 12 ] and the procedure developed in previous studies that adapted Spanish-specific questionnaires for different body parts such as the upper limbs [ 3 ], back [ 10 ], lower limbs [ 1 ] or ankle and foot [ 16 , 17 ], using independent and native translators who assured the equivalence of the terms used in the original questionnaire.
After conducting the exploratory factor analysis, not all items loaded on the factor model, as indicated by the questionnaire score questions: 1—18, 24, 25 Global Foot and Ankle Scale and 19—23 Foot Comfort Scale [ 6 ]. However, a confirmatory factor analysis was not performed, as our study did not meet the minimum sample size 10 subjects per item analysed or the optimal sample size 20 subjects per item analysed necessary to ensure reliable results [ 23 ].
However, the test-retest values were consistent between the two versions 0. This was based on the classification made by Field [ 22 ]. This study was developed following recommendations in the literature regarding the number of subjects required to conduct a psychometric analysis of the questionnaire, where a minimum of five subjects per item under review is required. The AAOS-FAMsp consists of 25 questions, so a minimum number of subjects would be required; this study included participants [ 24 ].
However, this study had some limitations, as not all items loaded onto the two factors described within the original questionnaire Global Foot and Ankle Scale and Shoe Comfort Scale , so future studies could develop a modified version of the AAOS-FAMsp according to the factors identified in this study. Moreover, no psychometric analyses of variables measured longitudinally, such as sensitivity to change and responsiveness, were presented.
Finally, the questionnaires were always provided in the same order, which may be a potential source of bias. It is an instrument that can be introduced into the Spanish-speaking environment to be used by clinicians and researchers as a tool to assess and monitor their patients. The authors would like to thank all who took part in the intervention and enabled the study to take place.
The raw database is available for all potentials readers. Please, find it as supplementary material. MG-S participated in the conception and design of the study and in the data collection, analysis and interpretation of the data and helped to draft the manuscript.
EV-R participated in the data collection, analysis and interpretation of the data and drafted the manuscript. MR-M participated in the conception of the study, analysis and interpretation of the data and helped to draft the manuscript. AIC-V participated in the analysis and interpretation of the data, helped to draft the manuscript and supervised the development of the study.go to site
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All authors read and approved the final manuscript. Esther Velasco Ramos MSc is a podiatrist. Antonio I. To be included in the study, participants provided signed informed consent. To ensure the independence of the collected data, the analysis of the data was performed by two blinded and independent investigators.
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Advertisement Hide. Download PDF. Open Access. First Online: 06 July Methods A direct translation English to Spanish and a reverse translation Spanish to English were performed by two independent professional native translators. Conclusions The results indicate that AAOS-FAMsp has satisfactory psychometric properties, facilitating the inclusion of Spanish-speaking individuals into both research and clinical practice. Design This observational study was conducted with patients recruited from three public and private podiatric clinics in southern Spain.
One hundred and ninety-three patients 99 women and 94 men with a mean age of Participants with a cognitive impairment of any aetiology that prevented them from completing the questionnaires independently were excluded from the present study. Table 1 Descriptive anthropometric data of the sample. Direct translation English to Spanish and the reverse translation Spanish to English were performed by two independent professional native translators.
In memoriam: Professor Victorino Farga Cuesta | The Union
With the aim of ensuring the conceptual equivalence of the terms used, a translation process was performed, as recommended by the literature [ 10 , 11 , 12 ]. Midnight Mass. What is a typical gift to leave for the Reyes Magos? What is a typical sweet to have during Christmas?
Arroz con leche.
Cuesta abajo (Bolsillo): MICHAEL CONNELLY : akarucason.cf: Books
What day do Spanish people give presents? December 24th. December 25th. January 5th. January 6th.
Which day is the main Christmas meal eaten in Spain? What is special about the 28 th of December? What is a traditional food to have in a Christmas dinner? A ring. What are the names of the Three Kings? The Three Kings come and give sweets to the kids. The Three Kings collect the Christmas lists from the children. The Three Kings come to the local church for Mass. What is el caganer? She fell asleep at PM.
Cada vez que voy a ese restaurante, pido la sopa de pollo. Every time I go to that restaurant, I order the chicken soup. Mis gatos siempre me siguen. My cats always follow me around. Her leg hurts, but she continues to play football. No te sigo.
What are you talking about? La chica repite lo que dice su hermano. The girl repeats what her brother says. I smile when I see you. If you liked this post, something tells me that you'll love FluentU, the best way to learn Spanish with real-world videos. Experience Spanish immersion online! FluentU brings Spanish to life with real-world videos. Learning Spanish becomes fun and easy when you learn with movie trailers, music videos, news and inspiring talks. FluentU is a participant in the Amazon Services LLC Associates Program, an affiliate advertising program designed to provide a means for sites to earn advertising fees by advertising and linking to Amazon.
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